TLD – Top Level Domain Names.
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet. The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name.
For example, in the domain name www.powerhoster.com, the top-level domain is com. Responsibility for management of most top-level domains is delegated to specific organizations by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), which operates the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and is in charge of maintaining the DNS root zone.
Types of TLD
As of 2015, IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:
- infrastructure top-level domain (ARPA): This group consists of one domain, the Address and Routing Parameter Area. It is managed by IANA on behalf of the Internet Engineering Task Force for various purposes specified in the Request for Comments publications.
- generic top-level domains (gTLD): Top-level domains with three or more characters
- restricted generic top-level domains (grTLD): These domains are managed under official ICANN accredited registrars.
- sponsored top-level domains (sTLD): These domains are proposed and sponsored by private agencies or organizations that establish and enforce rules restricting the eligibility to use the TLD. Use is based on community theme concepts; these domains are managed under official ICANN accredited registrars.
- country-code top-level domains (ccTLD): Two-letter domains established for countries or territories. With some historical exceptions, the code for any territory is the same as its two-letter ISO 3166 code.
- internationalized country code top-level domains (IDN ccTLD): ccTLDs in non-Latin character sets (e.g., Arabic, Cyrillic, Hebrew, or Chinese).
- test top-level domains (tTLD): These domains were installed under .test for testing purposes in the IDN development process; these domains are not present in the root zone.
Countries are designated in the Domain Name System by their two-letter ISO country code; there are exceptions, however (e.g., .uk). This group of domains is therefore commonly known as country-code top-level domains (ccTLD). Since 2009, countries with non–Latin-based scripts may apply for internationalized country code top-level domain names, which are displayed in end-user applications in their language-native script or alphabet, but use a Punycode-translated ASCII domain name in the Domain Name System.
Generic top-level domains (formerly Categories) initially consisted of gov, edu, com, mil, org, and net. More generic TLDs have been added, such as info.
The authoritative list of currently existing TLDs in the root zone is published at the IANA website at https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/.
The many new domains now becoming available on the web are called gTLDs or generic Top-Level Domains (TLDs). Like the original TLDs – .COM, .ORG, .NET – the new gTLDs are part of what people type into the address bar of their web browsers to get to your website.
What Are the Main Types of TLD ?
Top-Level Domains (TLDs) are categorized into different types based on their purpose, characteristics, and administration. Here are the main types of TLDs:
- Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLDs):
- Description: General-purpose domain extensions that are not associated with a specific country or territory.
- Examples: .com, .org, .net, .info, .biz, .name.
- Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs):
- Description: TLDs assigned to specific countries or territories, representing the two-letter country codes defined by the ISO 3166-1 standard.
- Examples: .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), .de (Germany), .ca (Canada), .jp (Japan).
- Sponsored Top-Level Domains (sTLDs):
- Description: TLDs that are sponsored by specific organizations or communities with a common interest. They are typically intended for a specific community or industry.
- Examples: .gov (U.S. government), .edu (educational institutions), .aero (aviation industry), .museum (museums).
- Infrastructure Top-Level Domain (ARPA):
- Description: Originally intended for addressing infrastructure-related tasks, ARPA is now used for technical purposes such as reverse DNS lookups and IPv6 address-to-name mappings.
- Generic Restricted Top-Level Domains (grTLDs):
- Description: Similar to gTLDs, but with restrictions on who can register domain names under these extensions. Registrations may be limited to specific entities or industries.
- Examples: .pro (for licensed professionals), .coop (for cooperatives), .museum (restricted to museums).
- New gTLDs:
- Description: Additional generic top-level domains introduced after 2013 as part of the domain name expansion initiative. They include a wide range of extensions catering to various industries and interests.
- Examples: .app, .blog, .guru, .tech, .xyz.
- Internationalized Country Code Top-Level Domains (IDN ccTLDs):
- Description: Country code TLDs that support non-ASCII characters, allowing domain names to be written in local languages and scripts.
- Examples: .рф (Russia in Cyrillic), .中国 (China in Chinese characters), .日本 (Japan in Japanese characters).
Thanks to these new domains, your website address can now describe who you are or what you do. For example, .PHOTOGRAPHY, .BUILD and .ATTORNEY all tell visitors something about what you offer. With a gTLD, you get a web address that’s specific to you and easy to remember so you can find more customers online.
With .COM nearing its 30th birthday, many of the best and most valuable domain names have already been registered. This has long been a frustration for business owners, forcing them to make up names for their businesses just to find an available domain name.
With the introduction of new gTLDs, you have a fresh chance to get the domain name you really want. Because many of the new domain extensions are specific to particular industries, interests, or locations your web address can now tell people exactly what you do (or where you do it). This makes the new domains easy to remember and you easier to find online.
Right now, We can reegister more than 600 Top Level Domain Names: